As the world hurls (Volcanic eruption safety tips and resources)

January 23, 2018

A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a reservoir of molten rock (like a huge pool of melted rocks) below the earth’s surface.

Unlike mountains, which are pushed up from the earth’s crust, volcanoes are formed by their buildup of lava, ash flows, and airborne ash and dust.

When pressure from gases and molten rock becomes strong enough to cause an explosion, it erupts and starts to spew gases and rocks through the opening.

Volcanic eruptions can hurl hot rocks (sometimes called tephra) for at least 20 miles (32 km) and cause sideways blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, avalanches, landslides and mudflows (also called lahars).

They can also cause earthquakes, thunderstorms, flash floods, wildfires, and tsunamis. Sometimes volcanic eruptions can drive people from their homes forever.

Fresh volcanic ash is not like soft ash in a fireplace. Volcanic ash is made of crushed or powdery rocks, crystals from different types of minerals, and glass fragments that are extremely small like dust. But it is hard, gritty, smelly, sometimes corrosive or acidic (means it can wear away or burn things) and does not dissolve in water.

The ash is hot near the volcano but is cool when it falls over great distances. Ashfall is very irritating to skin and eyes and the combination of ash and burning gas can cause lung irritation or damage to small infants, the elderly or people with breathing problems.

Did you know…

  • there are about 1 million volcanoes on the ocean’s floor which pump out roughly 3/4 of the lava reaching the earth’s surface;
  • the Ring of Fire that encircles the Pacific Ocean has about 450 of the approximate 1,300 historically active volcanoes according to the Smithsonian Institute’s Global Volcanism Program;
  • the U.S. has over 65 active or potentially active volcanoes and over 40 of them are in Alaska;
  • volcanic eruptions can impact our global climate since they release ash and gases (like sulfur and carbon dioxide) into the earth’s atmosphere and warm the oceans;
  • floods, airborne ash or dangerous fumes can spread 100 miles (160 km) or more;
  • Yellowstone National Park actually sits on top of a supervolcano which erupted 3 times in the past 2 million years forming 3 massive calderas (or huge craters)? Some other supervolcanoes are in Alaska, California, New Mexico, Indonesia, Japan, New Zealand and South America.

 

BEFORE A VOLCANIC ERUPTION:

Prepare – Try to cover and protect machinery, electronic devices, downspouts, etc. from ashfall. Learn more by visiting the USGS Volcano Hazards Program site at https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/volcanic_ash/

Learn alert levels – Ask emergency management office which volcano warnings or alert levels are used since they vary depending on where you live (can be alert levels, status levels, condition levels or color codes).

Make a plan – Develop a Family Emergency Plan and Disaster Supplies Kit. (Note: Put in goggles or safety glasses and dust masks for each family member to protect eyes and lungs from ash.) Download a free 56-pg PDF portion of our 266-page book that includes tips on making a plan and kit and more.

Okay to go? – Don’t go to active volcano sites unless officials say it’s okay.

Be ready to evacuate – Listen to local authorities and leave if you are told to evacuate.

 

DURING A VOLCANIC ERUPTION:

Listen – Do what local authorities say, especially if they tell you to leave!

Leave – If you are told to evacuate, DO IT! Don’t think you are safe to stay home … the blast can go for miles/kilometres and cause wildfires and other hazards!

Watch out – Eruptions cause many other disasters:

  • flying rocks – hurled for miles at extremely fast speeds
  • mudflows, landslides or lahars – they move faster than you can walk or run
  • fires – hot rocks and hot lava will cause buildings and forests to burn
  • lava flows – burning liquid rock and nothing can stop it
  • gases and ash – try to stay upwind since winds will carry these — they are very harmful to your lungs
  • vog – volcanic smog forms when sulfur dioxide and other pollutants react with oxygen, moisture and sunlight – can cause headaches, breathing difficulties and lung damage

IF INDOORS – Stay in, but be aware of ash, rocks, mudflows or lava!

  • Close all windows, doors, vents and dampers and turn off A/C and fans to keep ash fall out.
  • Put damp towels under doorways and drafty windows.
  • Bring pets inside (if time, move livestock into shelters).
  • Listen for creaking on your rooftop (in case ashfall gets heavy — could cause roof to collapse!)

IF OUTDOORS – Try to get indoors, if not…

  • Stay upwind so ash and gases are blown away from you.
  • Watch for falling rocks and, if you get caught in rockfall, roll into a ball to protect your head!
  • Get to higher ground – avoid low-lying areas since poisonous gases collect there and flash floods could happen.
  • Use dust-mask or damp cloth to help breathing, wear long-sleeved shirts and pants, and use goggles.
  • Ashfall can block out sunlight and may cause lightning.

IF IN A VEHICLE – Avoid driving unless absolutely required.

  • Slow down — keep speed at 35 mph (56 km/h) or slower, mainly because of thick dust and low visibility.
  • Shut off engine and park in garage (driving stirs up ash that can clog motor and damage moving engine parts).
  • Look upstream before crossing a bridge in case a mudflow or landslide is coming.

 

AFTER A VOLCANIC ERUPTION:

Listen – Local authorities will say if and when it’s safe to return to area (especially if you had to evacuate) and give other updates when available.

Water – Check with authorities before using water, even if eruption was just ash fall (gases and ash can contaminate water reserves). Don’t wash ash into drainpipes, sewers or storm drains since wet ash can wear away metal.

What to wear – If you must be around ash fall, you should wear long sleeve shirts, pants, sturdy boots or shoes, gloves, goggles (or safety glasses) and keep your mouth and nose covered with a dust-mask or damp cloth.

Ash – Dampen ash before sweeping or shoveling buildup so it’s easier to remove and won’t fly back up in the air as much – but be careful since wet ash is slippery. Wear protective clothing and a dust mask too. Realize ash can disrupt lives of people and critters for months.

Protect – Cover machinery and electronic devices like computers.

Above extracted from IT’S A DISASTER! …and what are YOU gonna do about it? by Bill and Janet Liebsch ~ learn how to order books and download a free 56-pg portion in PDF

 

Additional resources:

USGS Volcano Hazards Program http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/

Smithsonian Institute’s Global Volcanism Program www.volcano.si.edu

See some amazing volcanic eruption photos here and here

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Landslide and debris flow safety tips

March 26, 2014
landslide-fema-la_conchita-ca

1995 landslide in La Conchita, CA Photo: FEMA

According to US Geological Survey, landslides in the United States cause approximately $1-$2 billion in damage and kill more than 25 people on average each year. Worldwide, landslides cause thousands of casualties and billions in monetary losses every year.

Researchers at UK’s Durham University recently reported that landslides kill ten times more people across the world than was previously thought. Their Durham Fatal Landslide Database (DFLD) showed that 32,300 people died in landslides between 2004 and 2010. Previous estimates ranged from 3,000 to 7,000 fatalities.

One of the worst landslides and subsequent loess [sediment] flows on record happened in 1920 when the 8.5 magnitude Haiyuan Earthquake shook China for 10 minutes killing over 100,000 people.

Although landslides and debris or mud flows are primarily associated with mountainous regions, they also occur in low elevations too. According to Science Daily some key landslide hotspots include China, the Philippines, Central and South America, and India, but slides can happen anywhere in North America too.

Landslides are basically masses of rock, earth or debris that move down a slope often triggered by many natural events such as earthquakes, floods or volcanic eruptions. The term “landslide” encompasses five modes of slope movement: falls, topples, slides, spreads, and flows and can be further subdivided by the type of geologic material (bedrock, debris, or earth).

Mudflows or debris flows (a type of landslide) are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris soaked with water mostly caused by melting snow or heavy rains creating a slurry. A slurry can travel several miles from its source and grows in size as it picks up trees, cars, and other things along the way. They can even move houses off their foundations or bury a place within minutes due to their incredibly strong currents.

Whidbey Island WA 2013 mudslide before after

Before and after photo of 2013 mudslide on Whidbey Island / Photo: Washington Department of Natural Resources

In addition to Mother Nature’s fury causing land movements, human activities like deforestation, cultivation, stresses on groundwaters, and construction on unstable land also play large roles.

There are some warning signs to indicate if you have a potential problem.

BEFORE A LANDSLIDE OR MUDFLOW:

Learn risks – Ask your local emergency management officeif your property is a “landslide-prone” area. Or call your County or State Geologist or Engineer or visit the USGS Landslide Hazards Program

Recent fires? – Be aware that areas hit by wildfires have an increased risk of landslides and mudflows once the rainy season starts.

Get insurance…? – Talk to your agent and find out more about the National Flood Insurance Program since mudflows are covered by NFIP’s flood policy.

Be prepared to evacuate – Listen to local authorities and leave if you are told to evacuate.

Where would we go? – Decide in advance where you would go in case you can’t return home for weeks or months .. or ever. If your home is damaged or destroyed or you’re forced to leave your home due to on-going threats (like mudslides or flooding), you’ll need to find temporary or permanent living quarters. This could mean staying in a public shelter or hotel, living with friends or relatives, or renting a home or apartment in the middle of all the chaos, so discuss several options now. Then, write down those options and share them with relatives and friends.

Reduce risks – Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls.

Inspect – Look around home and property for landslide warning signs:

  • cracks or bumps appear on hill slopes, ground or roads
  • water or saturated ground in areas not normally wet
  • evidence of slow, downhill movement of rock and soil
  • tilted trees, poles, decks, patios, fences or walls
  • underground utility lines break
  • doors and windows stick or cracks appear on walls, etc.

Call an expert…? – Consult a professional for advice. Or visit the National Landslide Information Center

 

DURING A LANDSLIDE OR MUDFLOW:

Strange sounds – Listen for trees cracking, rocks banging together or water flowing rapidly (esp if near a stream or river) – debris flow may be close by.

Move it! – Whether you are in a vehicle, outside, or in your home – GET TO SAFER GROUND! Avoid low-lying areas, washes and river valleys and look upstream before crossing a bridge in case a debris flow is coming.

Listen – Tune in to local radio or TV reports to keep you posted on latest updates especially since other disasters like earthquakes, storms, flooding or volcanic eruptions may be associated with debris flows.

Be small – If there is no way to escape, curl into a tight ball and protect your head the best you can.

 

AFTER A LANDSLIDE OR MUDFLOW:

Listen – Local radio and TV reports will keep you posted on latest updates or check with your local police or fire departments.

Don’t go there – Stay away from the area until authorities say all is clear since there could be more slides or flows.

Things to watch for:

  • flooding – usually occur after landslides or debris flows
  • damaged areas – roadways and bridges may be buried, washed-out or weakened — and water, gas & sewer lines may be broken
  • downed power lines – report them to power company

Inspect – Look for damage around home and property and watch for new landslide warning signs:

  • check foundation, chimney, garage and other structures
  • report any broken utility lines or damaged roads to local authorities
  • watch for tilted trees, poles, decks, patios, fences or walls
  • notice doors or windows stick, cracks appear, etc.

Replant – Try to fix or replant damaged ground to reduce erosion, possible flash flooding or future landslides.

Call an expert…? – Consult a professional landscaping expert for opinions and advice on landslide problems. Also call an expert out if you discover structural damage to home, chimney or other buildings.

Insurance – If your home suffers any damage, contact your insurance agent and keep all receipts for clean-up and repairs.

Some additional things to check and do…

  • Check for gas leaks (smells like rotten eggs, hear a hissing or blowing sound or see discolored plants or grass)
  • Check electrical system (watch for sparks, broken wires or the smell of hot insulation)
  • Check appliances after turning off electricity at main fuse and, if wet, unplug and let them dry out. Call a professional to check them before using.
  • Check water and sewage system and, if pipes are damaged, turn off main water valve.
  • Consider having your house tested for mold.
  • Secure valuable items or move them to another location, if possible

Emotional recovery tips –   Disasters and emergencies may cause you to leave your home and your daily routine and deal with many different emotions, but realize that a lot of this is normal human behavior. Read more

Remember… the more you prepare before disaster strikes, the better off you and your loved ones will be financially, emotionally and physically.

 

Sources: It’s A Disaster! …and what are YOU gonna do about it? book and our “Slip Sliding Away” article in PREPARE magazine’s Sep 2013 issue

Our thoughts and prayers go out to all those impacted by the recent #530slide in Washington state. Stay current on news and learn how to help the victims at www.snohomishcountywa.gov/2354/530-Slide  j & B


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